Charles Arnould Tournemire (1870 – 1939) was a French composer, organist, and accomplished improviser. From 1898 to 1939, Tournemire served as the organiste titulaire at Franck’s old church, the Basilique St-Clotilde in Paris. He was also professor of Chamber Music at the Paris Conservatoire. In 1931 he published a biography of Franck. A year before the biography appeared, Tournemire recorded five organ improvisations, which were later transcribed by Maurice Duruflé from the phonograph recordings. These recordings and most all of his improvisations were often rooted in the music of Gregorian chants.